International Conference Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt (Cracow, Poland: 28th August – 1st September 2002) Abstracts of Papers Krzysztof M. CIAOWICZ, Marek CHODNICKI & Stan HENDRICKX (eds.) Cracow 2002Contents Contents 3 Participants 5 Abstracts 9 ABAMOWICZ, R., Les restes d’animaux à caractère symbolique (?) d’après les études à Tell el Farkha (Egypte) ................................................................................................9 BABA, M. & SAITO, M., Experimental Studies on the Firing Methods of the Black-topped Pottery in Predynastic Egypt.......................................................................................10 BAGH, T., First Dynasty Jewellery and Amulets - Finds from the Naqada Tomb, Comparisons and Interpretation.................................................................................12 BELOVA, G., The Unified Egyptian State. The Outlook from the East.............................14 BIELEN, S., The Funerary Objects from the Early Dynastic Royal Tombs at Abydos in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels.................................................15 BRAUN, E., Egypt and the Southern Levant: Shifting Patterns of Relationships during Dynasty 0......................................................................................................................17 BUCHEZ, N., Study of a Ceramic Ensemble from the End of the Naqada Period and its Socio Economic Context.............................................................................................18 CAMPAGNO, M., In the Beginning was the War. Conflict and the Emergence of the Egyptian State..............................................................................................................21 CHODNICKI, M., Excavations at the Central Kom of Tell el-Farkha, 1990-2002..........23 CIAOWICZ, K.M., Tell el-Farkha 2001-2002. Excavations at the Western Kom...........25 CWIEK, A., Sealings from Tell el-Farkha.............................................................................27 DEBOWSKA, J., Recent Discoveries in the Necropolis of Tell el-Farkha..........................28 DESSEL, J.P., Colonialism, Commerce and the Initial Unification of the Egyptian State: Egypto-Canaanite Relations in the Fourth Millennium...........................................29 EL-BAGHDADI, S.G. & EL-SAID NUR, N.M., The Late Predynastic – Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Minshat Ezzat and Tell el-Samarah (el-Dakahliya Governorate), Northeastern Delta.......................................................................................................31 FALTINGS, D., An Early Egyptian City at Tell es-Sakhan near Gaza...................................33 FRIEDMAN, R.F., Excavations at Hierakonpolis...................................................................34 GOPHNA, R., A Comment on Possible Relations between Early Bronze Age III Southern Canaan and Old Kingdom Egypt................................................................................36 GRAFF, G., Les peintures sur vases Nagada I-II. Nouvelle approche sémiologique...........37 HARTUNG, U., New Investigations in the Predynastic Settlement at Maadi.....................39 HENDRICKX, S., A small Second Dynasty Cemetery at Elkab............................................40 HERBICH, T., The Magnetic Survey at Tell el-Farkha...........................................................41 JIMÉNEZ SERRANO, A., The Name of Elephantine in the Late Predynastic Period..............42 JÓRDECZKA, M., Stone Implements from Tell el-Farkha...................................................43 JUCHA, M., Tell el-Farkha 2001-2002. The Pottery from the Tombs..................................45 KABACINSKI, J., Lithic Industry at Tell el-Farkha (Eastern Delta) ...................................46 KÖHLER, E.C., At the Origins of Memphis – The New Excavations in the Early Dynastic Necropolis at Helwan...................................................................................................47 KROEPER, K., Aspects of the Analysis of a Cemetery..........................................................50 KROL, A., The Heb-Sed and the Emergence of the Egyptian State...................................51 KUBIAK-MARTENS, L., Plant Remains from Tell el-Farkha in the Eastern Nile Delta (Seasons 2001 and 2002 – Preliminary Results) .....................................................52 MACZYNSKA, A., The Pottery Tradition at Tell el-Farkha.................................................53 MIDANT-REYNES, B., Kom el-Khilgan..................................................................................54 MYSLIWIEC, K., Recent Discoveries of Early Old Kingdom Structures in West Saqqara .......................................................................................................................................55 NOWAK, E.M., Egyptian Predynastic Ivories decorated with Anthropomorphic Motifs.56 PATCH, D.C., Regional Settlement Patterns as Indicators of Cultural Change in the Predynastic Period.......................................................................................................57 PAWLIKOWSKI, M., Results of the Preliminary Mineralogical Investigation at Tell el-Farkha, Nile Delta, Egypt...........................................................................................59 PAWLIKOWSKI, M., Reasons for the Neolithic - Early Dynastic Transition in Egypt. Geological and Climatic Evidence.............................................................................61 PIQUETTE, K., Representing the Human Body on Late Predynastic – Early Dynastic Labels .......................................................................................................................................64 REGULSKI, I., Early Dynastic Palaeography..........................................................................65 RIEMER, H., News about the Clayton Rings: Long Distance Desert Travellers during Egypt’s Predynastic......................................................................................................68 ROWLAND, J.M., Application of Mortuary Data to the Problem of Social Transformation in the Delta from the Terminal Predynastic to the Early Dynastic Period.............69 SMYTHE, J., Pottery from the New Excavations at the Cemetery Site of Helwan ..............70 SOWADA, K., Egypt in the Levant during the Early Dynastic Period/Early Bronze Age II .......................................................................................................................................72 TAKAMIYA, I., Development of Specialization in the Nile Valley during the 4th Millennium B.C. ..........................................................................................................73 VAN DEN BRINK, E.C.M., Inter-site Variability of Late Early Bronze I Sites with Egyptian Affiliations. A further Update and Re-assessment ..................................................75 VAN WETERING, J., The Royal Cemetery of the Early Dynastic Period at Saqqara and the Second Dynasty Royal Tombs...................................................................................76 VERMEERSCH, P.M. & HENDRICKX, S., Abadiya 2, a Naqada I Site near Danfiq, Upper Egypt.............................................................................................................................77 Participants

Renata ABAMOWICZ Muzeum Slaskie Katowice al. W. Korfantego 3 40-005 Katowice archeo@muzeumslaskie.art.pl Ali Mohammed Ibrahim AMRIA The Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mansura Inspectorate Mansura Egypt Masahiro BABA 1-14-17 Kannon Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi Kanagawa-ken 210-0831 Japan QYP13226@nifty.ne.jp Tine BAGH Carsten Niebuhr Institute, University of Copenhagen Snorresgade 17-19 DK-2300 K┐benhavn S Denmark bagh@hum.ku.dk Galina BELOVA Center for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences 117574 Proezd Odoevskogo 3-3-372 Moscow Russia cesras@online.ru Stijn BIELEN Egyptian Department Royal Museums for Art and History Jubelpark 10 B-1040 Brussels Belgium stijn.bielen@belgacom.net Eliot BRAUN Israel Antiquities Authority P.O.B. 586 Jerusalem, 91004 Israel febraun@netvision.net.il eliot@israntique.org.il Nathalie BUCHEZ 2, Rue de Motte F-80290 Fresnay-au-Vall France nathalie.buchez@wanadoo.fr Marcelo CAMPAGNO Av. Rivadavia 5547 3F C1424CEK Buenos Aires Argentina mcampagno@ciudad.com.ar Marek CHODNICKI Muzeum Archeologiczne ul. Wodna 27 61-781 Poznan • Poland mchlod@man.poznan.pl Krzysztof M. CIAOWICZ Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland kmcialowicz@interia.pl Andrzej CWIEK Muzeum Archeologiczne ul. Wodna 27 61-781 Poznan • Poland Joanna DEBOWSKA Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland joanna_d@poczta.onet.pl J.P.DESSEL Department of History, University of Tennessee 6th Floor Dunford Hall 915 Volunteer Boulevard Knoxville, TN 37996 USA jdessel@utk.edu Salem EL-BAGHDADI The Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mansura Inspectorate Mansura Egypt Nagib Mohammed EL-SAID NUR The Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mansura Inspectorate Mansura Egypt Dina FALTINGS Beethovenstrasse 56 69121 Heidelberg BRD DFaltings@aol.com Renée FRIEDMAN Dept. of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum London WC1B 3DG England renee.f@virgin.net Bolesaw GINTER Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland ginter@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl Ram GOPHNA Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv 6978 Israel gophna@post.tau.ac.il Gwenola GRAFF 29, rue Briçonnet F-37000 Tours France gwenola.graff@wanadoo.fr Ulrich HARTUNG c/o German Institute of Archaeology 31, Sh. Abu el-Feda, Zamalek 11211 Cairo Egypt uhartung@soficom.com.eg Stan HENDRICKX Sint-Jansstraat 44 B-3118 Werchter Belgium s.hendrickx@pandora.be Tomasz HERBICH Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN Al. Solidarnosci 105 00-140 Warszawa Poland herbich@archeolog.iaepan.edu.pl Alejandro JIMÉNEZ SERRANO Calle Santo Reino no. 7, 7° D E-23001 Jaén Spain alejandrojjs@yahoo.es Maciej JÓRDECZKA Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN ul. Zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 Poznan • Poland Mariusz JUCHA Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31.007 Kraków Poland jucha@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl Jacek KABACINSKI Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN ul. Zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 Poznan • Poland kabay@man.poznan.pl Micha • KOBUSIEWICZ Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN ul. Zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 Poznan • Poland mkobus@man.poznan.pl Janusz K. KOZOWSKI Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland kozlowsk@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl Christiana KÖHLER Australian Center for Egyptology, Macquarie University Sydney, N.S.W. 2109 Australia ckoehler@pip.elm.mq.edu.au Karla KROEPER Ägyptisches Museum Schlossstrasse 70 D-14059 Berlin BRD kkroeper@hotmail.com Alexei KROL 123308 Khoroshevskoe shosse 9-2-66 Moscow Russia alexikrol@yahoo.com Lech KRZYZANIAK Muzeum Archeologiczne ul. Wodna 27 61-781 Poznan • Poland lechk@man.poznan.pl Lucyna KUBIAK-MARTENS BIAX Consult Roetersstraat 8hs N-1018nWC Amsterdam Netherlands kubiak@biax.nl Agnieszka MACZYNSKA Muzeum Archeologiczne ul. Wodna 27 61-781 Poznan • Poland agamacz@man.poznan.pl Beatrix MIDANT-REYNES Centre d’Anthropologie des Sociétés Rurales, Université Paul Sabatier 56 rue du Taur F-31000 Toulouse France midant@cict.fr Karol MYSLIWIEC Zakad Archeologii Sródziemnomorskiej PAN ul. Nowy Swiat 72 Warszawa Poland Edyta M. NOWAK Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland edyta_nowak@interia.pl Diana Craig PATCH Dept. of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1000 Fifth Ave. New York NY 10028 U.S.A. patrom@aol.com Maciej PAWLIKOWSKI Instytut Mineralogii, Petrografii i Geochemii, Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza Al. Mickiewicza 30 30-059 Kraków Poland mpawlik@uci.agh.edu.pl Kathryn PIQUETTE Institute of Archaeology, University College London 31-34 Gordon Square London WC1H 0PY England tcrnkep@ucl.ac.uk Ilona REGULSKI Egyptian Department Royal Museums for Art and History Jubelpark 10 B-1040 Brussels Belgium ilona_regulski@yahoo.com Heiko RIEMER Forschungstelle Afrika, Institut för Ur- und Fröhgeschichte, Universität zu Köln Jennerstrasse 8 D-50823 Köln BRD Heiko.Riemer@uni-koeln.de Joanne ROWLAND Institute of Archaeology, University College London 31-34 Gordon Square London WC1H 0PY England joannerowland@hotmail.com Peter SCHÖNFELD Forschungstelle Afrika, Institut för Ur- und Fröhgeschichte, Universität zu Köln Jennerstrasse 8 D-50823 Köln BRD Jane SMYTHE Australian Center for Egyptology, Macquarie University Sydney, N.S.W. 2109 Australia smythejane@hotmail.com Karin SOWADA The Nicholson Museum, University of Sydney Sydney, N.S.W 2006 Australia Joachim SLIWA Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski ul. Goebia 11 31-007 Kraków Poland jsliwa@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl Izumi TAKAMIYA The School of Literature, Arts & Cultural Studies, Kinki University 228-3 Shinkamikosaka, Higashiosaka-shi Osaka-fu, 577-0813 Japan izumi@fiveminutes.co.jp Edwin VAN DEN BRINK Israel Antiquities Authority P.O.B. 586 Jerusalem, 91004 Israel edwin@israntique.org.il Joris VAN WETERING Groningsestraat 19 N-2587 RJ Den Haag Netherlands jflvwetering@yahoo.co.uk Pierre VERMEERSCH Laboratorium voor Prehistorie Redingenstraat 16bis B-3000 Leuven Belgium pierre.vermeersch@geo.kuleuven.ac.be Martin ZIERMANN Rathelbeckstrasse 374 D-40627 Dösseldorf BRD Bauforschung@nexgo.de MartinZiermann@cs.com

ksowada@zeta.org.au Les restes d’animaux à caractère symbolique (?) d’après les études à Tell el-Farkha (Egypte) Renata ABAMOWICZ Muzeum Slaskie Katowice, Katowice (Poland) L’étude concerne les restes d’animaux qui témoignent des coutumes et rites religieux pratiqués par les habitants de l’emplacement dans la période entre environ 3500 - 2700 avant notre ère. On considère comme fouilles à ce caractère les restes d’animaux retrouvés dans des tombes humaines (tell F) ainsi que les découvertes isolées provenant des hameaux (tell W, tell C). Aux environs des tombes, on a trouvé des restes d’animaux dans la terre couvrant les fosses, auprès des squelettes humaines, à côté et à l’intérieur des ustensiles (qui faisaient partie de l’équipement du défunt). Le cochon était l’espèce la plus fréquente (constituant 97% d’os retrouvés); à part cela on a identifié des fragments séparés de bovins, ainsi que des restes de mouton, de chèvre, de chien et de lièvre. On a distingué aussi des débris de poissons, d’oiseaux, de reptiles et des coquilles des mollusques d’eau douce. Evidemment, le caractère des restes d’animaux découverts n’est pas toujours évident ni tout à fait compréhensible. Certains os peuvent être liés aux dons (il s’agit de la nourriture symbolique offerte au défunt), d’autres viennent probablement des repas funéraires célébrés auprès de la tombe. Dans certaines circonstances, les restes d’animaux reflétaient peut-être le statut matériel et social du mort. Le rôle "symbolique" des animaux est confirmé par les découvertes dans les tells central (C) et oriental (W). Ainsi, le premier cas révèle l’existence d’une fosse pour les chiens près de laquelle on avait déposé aussi les os d’une antilope. Les os d’un aurochs (ou d’une grande bête à cornes), ordonnés de manière atypique, proviennent du tell W; on les a identifiés dans l’enceinte des murs de l’édifice. Experimental Studies on the Firing Methods of the Black-topped Pottery in Predynastic Egypt Masahiro BABA & Masanori SAITO Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan) One of the most accomplished and sophisticated wares in ancient Egypt is the black-topped pottery that was mainly manufactured during the Amratian (Naqada I) and Gerzean (Naqada II) Periods (4000-3000 BC). This pottery has the distinctive feature of having a polished red body with black on the rim and on the inside. The greatest concern on the black-topped pottery is the chemistry used to produce the black coloring and the firing method, which have engendered much discussion and debate over the years. Based on the scientific investigations, we came to the conclusion that the black color is due to a carbon adsorption caused by the organic materials and the firing under reducing circumstances. The firing method of the black-topped pottery is, however, still in controversy. Hypotheses are generally divided into two interpretations. One is the firing in which the red of the body and the black of the rim are produced simultaneously. The other is the two-step process in which the red-hot vessel is removed from the hearth and placed immediately rim down into organic materials. Although primitive firing methods might have been used by ancient potters, most of the previous experimental firings have been carried out in electric kilns. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to reproduce black-topped pottery in the primitive way, and to limit the assumptions of its firing method. Five firings were carried out; 1) bonfire, 2) bonfire in pit, 3) mud-covered bonfire, 4) updraught kiln, 5) two-step production. 1) ~ 4) were operated as one-step processes in which the vessels were placed upside down into the bed of the chaff before firing. The sample pots were made of clay with small amounts of fine sand and organic temper. The surfaces of the samples were coated with the red slip (ferric oxide), and polished with a pebble when half dry. 1) Bonfire: at first, a shallow hole about 10cm in depth was prepared in the ground, and filled with chaff. Samples were placed on the chaff, around which firewood for fuel was set at some distances. After firing, firewood was gradually moved nearer to the samples in order to avoid a fast rise in temperature. The maximum temperature was reached between 700~800°C. Although the carbon adsorption occurred, black stains were observed to remain on the whole outside of the samples. Thus, the bonfire did not easily produce the complete black-topped pottery. 2) Bonfire in pit: a pit (1.5m square and 35cm in depth) was dug in the ground, in the bottom of which firewood and chaff were laid down. Samples placed on the chaff were covered with straw and firewood. Once the firewood was set on fire, the temperature rose rapidly, after 5 minutes it reached 800°C and was kept at that temperature for 10 minutes. The result was the same as with the bonfire method. 3) Mud-covered bonfire: this method of firing is still widely practiced in Eastern Asia, the so-called Unnan style. The samples were placed on a bed of chaff, around which firewood and straw were leaned, and were entirely covered with a layer of mud. After 85 minutes from ignition, the temperature inside reached 950°C, then after 170 minutes it reduced to 200°C. As the mud-cover was broken after it had cooled down, the firewood turned out to be charred and the chaff had not been burnt off. The samples were adequately fired, around the mouth of which the carbon adsorption was also achieved. Moreover, the silvery luster between the red and black zone was observed as the same as the ancient black-topped pottery. 4) Updraught kiln: the kiln used in this experiment was a simple one, the interior of which was partitioned by a grid radiating from a central pillar to make a hearth and a firing chamber. The chaff was laid on the fireproof plates set on the grid, and the samples were placed in the chaff. The temperature in the kiln was increased gradually to prevent damage to the samples. 215 minutes after ignition, 800°C was reached, after that, 650~800°C was kept for 60 minutes. The highest temperature, 870°C, was recorded at 220 minutes after the kiln was set on fire. The result was that the samples were baked very well, and the firing itself was proved to be successful. The carbon adsorption was, however, not observed in most samples, because the chaff had been reduced to ashes. 5) Two-step production: at first, the samples were baked in a bonfire. The temperature rose rapidly after ignition, and reached 740°C the highest temperature in about 45 minutes. When the original carbon in the samples was burnt out, the red-hot samples were removed from the hearth and put into the hole filled with chaff. The carbon adsorption was attained and on the rim of the samples. The summary of the results are as follows; owing to the difficulty of controlling the fire, the bonfire, and the bonfire in the pit, were proved not to be suitable for the production of the black-topped pottery. The updraught kiln was also unsuitable, because of the organic material for the carbon adsorption being entirely burnt out by the upward flames. On the other hand, we succeeded in reproducing the black-topped pottery by using the two-step production method. However, it is highly probable that this method can be applied to smaller pottery, but not to larger ones. The reason for this assumption is that it is thought to be difficult to remove the large pottery from the hearth. Of our experimental firings, the mud-covered bonfire was the most successful method. Its operation was so easy that once the fire was set, there was no need to do some treatment during the firing. Additionally, it needed less fuel than in the bonfires and the updraught kiln. Evidence of the mud-covered bonfire has not yet been found on predynasatic sites in Egypt, but it may be due to the property of the mud-cover being broken when opening. On the contrary, the absence of obvious kilns from this era might suggest the existence of the mud-covered bonfire. Moreover, from the negative result of the updraught kiln, it might be assumed that the primitive firing methods of the black-topped pottery were gradually vanished as the new technique of the updraught kiln was introduced into Egypt. First Dynasty Jewellery and Amulets Finds from the Naqada Tomb, Comparisons and Interpretation Tine BAGH Carsten Niebuhr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark) The finds from the niched mastaba in Naqada from the time of King Aha (here: the Naqada tomb), are currently under investigation for a final publication by Jochem Kahl, Eva Engel, Susanne Petschel and Tine Bagh (Cf. J. Kahl et al. 2001). De Morgan excavated the tomb in 1897 and it was subsequently investigated by L. Borchardt in 1891 and J. Garstang in 1904. The position of this type of grand tomb and the identity of the tomb owner have always puzzled us and this new study is bringing light to an important collection of material from the crucial period of the beginning of the 1st dynasty.

Fig. 1: The Naqada Tomb The Naqada tomb contained objects for personal adornment such as bead necklaces including small labels with the number of beads for each necklace and different kinds of tiny bracelets of bone. Parallels for these bracelets occur in other tombs of the period and their small size would pose the question whether they were actually worn on the arm or possibly bearing some symbolic meaning as tomb equipment.

Fig. 2: Bone labels with number of beads from the Naqada Tomb. 15 fish amulets of bone, each 5-7cm long, were also among the grave goods. These can be divided into two main types being tilapiae with its characteristic high and flat body and mullets with a long slim and more rounded body and both types are pierced through the mouth and to a little below it. Part of a fish, probably a mullet, was found in the tomb of Aha at Abydos and the offerings from the temple at Hierakonpolis included a small tilapia, but otherwise the Naqada fish are unique. In later times, i.e. in the Middle Kingdom, fish pendants are known as hair/plait pendants and as such they may have had a protective function. The connection between the tilapiae and the concept rebirth is well known and at least from the Old Kingdom, mullets are also associated with the cycle of life. Some finds from the tomb are thus unique others have parallels from contemporary tombs in Abydos and Saqqara.

Fig. 3: Example of a. Tilapiae, b. Mullet from the Naqada Tomb. The size of the tomb together with the tomb equipment as for example one gold bead and vessels of precious imported material such as obsidian definitely points towards a royal burial and the main theory according to the inscribed material from the tomb is that it belonged to Queen Neith-Hotep. The burnt bones from the burial chamber was analysed and seemed to be from a male person, so the question can not yet be determined with certainty. Bibliography KAHL, J.; BAGH, T.; ENGEL, E.-M. & PETSCHEL, S., Die Funde aus dem ’Menesgrab’ in Naqada: ein Zwischenbericht. MDAIK, 57 (2001): 171-186. KAHL, J. & ENGEL, E.-M., Vergraben, verbrannt, verkannt und vergessen. Funde aus dem "Menesgrab". Mönster, 2001. The Unified Egyptian State. The Outlook from the East Galina A. BELOVA Center for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskou (Russia) The excavations of the temple complex at Tell Ibrahim Awad help fill some of the gaps in the history of the rise of the Egyptian kingdom and not only confirm Seidlmayer’s opinions on this subject but also allow us to develop some of his statements. A complex pattern of interactions was taking place on the southern and northern boarders of Egypt before and throughout the reign of the 1st Dynasty kings. In the beginning of this period the frontier zone along the coast of Sinai up into southern Canaan was populated by a mix of Egyptian and native inhabitants and peppered with settlements and trade points. This pattern ends with the close of the 1st Dynasty. Similar changes took place in the south. These developments on the northern and southern borders of the Pre/Protodynastic Egyptian State were connected with major changes within Egypt itself, which were particularly manifest in important centers such as Abydos, Hierakonpolis, Elephantine, where we see fortified towns replacing scattered settlements. No doubt this is related to the establishment of clear borders and the need to enforce them. The erection of fortresses and the control of foreign trade is intimately connected with the unification of the Egyptian state and coincides with an aggressive program of temple-building. The latter structures were under the protection of local deities and celebrated the cult of the king who was both the singular expression of the state’s unity and the embodiment of its will to power. Additionally, offerings to the cult of the king may have provided a focal point for the national economy as far back as the Early Dynastic period. Hence, the objectives of the first Egyptians kings included establishing and securing the borders of the State, laying claim to frontier territories and managing the economic, political and religious integration of the whole country. It seems very likely that the temples in the border areas were erected as part of one single project both as a result of and a statement regarding the unification of Egypt To sum up, Tell Ibrahim Awad is of great significance both in terms of religion and policy. Perhaps the conjectures and ideas given above will be confirmed in the course of the further excavations and clarify the uncertain picture which we have of the appearance of the unified kingdom in Egypt. The Funerary Objects from the Early Dynastic Royal Tombs at Abydos in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels Stijn BIELEN Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels (Belgium) Introduction In the Egyptian collection of the Royal Museums of Art and History (RMAH) in Brussels is preserved an enormous amount of objects from the royal tombs of the first and second dynasties at Umm el-Qaab (Abydos, Upper Egypt). These artefacts consist in the first place of an outrageous mass of fragmentary stone vessels, estimated at more than 50.000 individual fragments. Furthermore there are about 400 fragments of decorative stone vessels and 510 objects belonging to other categories (pottery vessels, bone and ivory objects, flint artefacts, seals, seal impressions ╔). An important number of these bear hieroglyphic inscriptions. Indubitably, we are dealing here with the largest collection of archaeological material from these tombs outside Egypt. These objects have reached the museum in Brussels in several ways. A number of remarkable pieces was bought in 1904 in Paris when the collection of Emile Amélineau (who excavated the royal tombs in 1895-1898) was sold by auction. Another series of objects originates from the excavations which W.M.F. Petrie carried out in 1899-1901 on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund. The RMAH subscribed to this undertaking as Petrie was used to present important collections of objects to the institutions who supported him financially. The museum apparently received a much greater share than it would have been entitled to considering the money invested in the Egypt Exploration Society. This is probably due to the excellent relationship between Petrie and Jean Capart, in those days keeper of the Egyptian section of the RMAH. Although excavated a hundred years ago, the material in Brussels has never been adequately studied. Because of the renewed interest in this type of material displayed by several museums with collections of the same provenance en because of the currently undertaken re-excavation of the site by the German Archaeological Institute, conditi
 
international conference origin of the state. predynastic and early dynastic egypt (cracow, poland: 28th august – 1st september 2002) abstracts of papers krzysztof m. ciaowicz, marek chodnicki & stan hendrickx (eds.) cracow 2002contents contents 3 participants 5 abstracts 9 abamowicz, r., les restes d'animaux a caractere symbolique (?) d'apres les etudes a tell el farkha (egypte) ................................................................................................9 baba, m. & saito, m., experimental studies on the firing methods of the black-topped pottery in predynastic egypt.......................................................................................10 bagh, t., first dynasty jewellery and amulets - finds from the naqada tomb, comparisons and interpretation.................................................................................12 belova, g., the unified egyptian state. the outlook from the east.............................14 bielen, s., the funerary objects from the early dynastic royal tombs at abydos in the royal museums of art and history in brussels.................................................15 braun, e., egypt and the southern levant: shifting patterns of relationships during dynasty 0......................................................................................................................17 buchez, n., study of a ceramic ensemble from the end of the naqada period and its socio economic context.............................................................................................18 campagno, m., in the beginning was the war. conflict and the emergence of the egyptian state..............................................................................................................21 chodnicki, m., excavations at the central kom of tell el-farkha, 1990-2002..........23 ciaowicz, k.m., tell el-farkha 2001-2002. excavations at the western kom...........25 cwiek, a., sealings from tell el-farkha.............................................................................27 debowska, j., recent discoveries in the necropolis of tell el-farkha..........................28 dessel, j.p., colonialism, commerce and the initial unification of the egyptian state: egypto-canaanite relations in the fourth millennium...........................................29 el-baghdadi, s.g. & el-said nur, n.m., the late predynastic – early dynastic cemeteries of minshat ezzat and tell el-samarah (el-dakahliya governorate), northeastern delta.......................................................................................................31 faltings, d., an early egyptian city at tell es-sakhan near gaza...................................33 friedman, r.f., excavations at hierakonpolis...................................................................34 gophna, r., a comment on possible relations between early bronze age iii southern canaan and old kingdom egypt................................................................................36 graff, g., les peintures sur vases nagada i-ii. nouvelle approche semiologique...........37 hartung, u., new investigations in the predynastic settlement at maadi.....................39 hendrickx, s., a small second dynasty cemetery at elkab............................................40 herbich, t., the magnetic survey at tell el-farkha...........................................................41 jimenez serrano, a., the name of elephantine in the late predynastic period..............42 jordeczka, m., stone implements from tell el-farkha...................................................43 jucha, m., tell el-farkha 2001-2002. the pottery from the tombs..................................45 kabacinski, j., lithic industry at tell el-farkha (eastern delta) ...................................46 kohler, e.c., at the origins of memphis – the new excavations in the early dynastic necropolis at helwan...................................................................................................47 kroeper, k., aspects of the analysis of a cemetery..........................................................50 krol, a., the heb-sed and the emergence of the egyptian state...................................51 kubiak-martens, l., plant remains from tell el-farkha in the eastern nile delta (seasons 2001 and 2002 – preliminary results) .....................................................52 maczynska, a., the pottery tradition at tell el-farkha.................................................53 midant-reynes, b., kom el-khilgan..................................................................................54 mysliwiec, k., recent discoveries of early old kingdom structures in west saqqara .......................................................................................................................................55 nowak, e.m., egyptian predynastic ivories decorated with anthropomorphic motifs.56 patch, d.c., regional settlement patterns as indicators of cultural change in the predynastic period.......................................................................................................57 pawlikowski, m., results of the preliminary mineralogical investigation at tell el-farkha, nile delta, egypt...........................................................................................59 pawlikowski, m., reasons for the neolithic - early dynastic transition in egypt. geological and climatic evidence.............................................................................61 piquette, k., representing the human body on late predynastic – early dynastic labels .......................................................................................................................................64 regulski, i., early dynastic palaeography..........................................................................65 riemer, h., news about the clayton rings: long distance desert travellers during egypt's predynastic......................................................................................................68 rowland, j.m., application of mortuary data to the problem of social transformation in the delta from the terminal predynastic to the early dynastic period.............69 smythe, j., pottery from the new excavations at the cemetery site of helwan ..............70 sowada, k., egypt in the levant during the early dynastic period/early bronze age ii .......................................................................................................................................72 takamiya, i., development of specialization in the nile valley during the 4th millennium b.c. ..........................................................................................................73 van den brink, e.c.m., inter-site variability of late early bronze i sites with egyptian affiliations. a further update and re-assessment ..................................................75 van wetering, j., the royal cemetery of the early dynastic period at saqqara and the second dynasty royal tombs...................................................................................76 vermeersch, p.m. & hendrickx, s., abadiya 2, a naqada i site near danfiq, upper egypt.............................................................................................................................77 participants

renata abamowicz muzeum slaskie katowice al. w. korfantego 3 40-005 katowice archeo@muzeumslaskie.art.pl ali mohammed ibrahim amria the supreme council of antiquities, mansura inspectorate mansura egypt masahiro baba 1-14-17 kannon kawasaki-ku, kawasaki-shi kanagawa-ken 210-0831 japan qyp13226@nifty.ne.jp tine bagh carsten niebuhr institute, university of copenhagen snorresgade 17-19 dk-2300 kobenhavn s denmark bagh@hum.ku.dk galina belova center for egyptological studies of the russian academy of sciences 117574 proezd odoevskogo 3-3-372 moscow russia cesras@online.ru stijn bielen egyptian department royal museums for art and history jubelpark 10 b-1040 brussels belgium stijn.bielen@belgacom.net eliot braun israel antiquities authority p.o.b. 586 jerusalem, 91004 israel febraun@netvision.net.il eliot@israntique.org.il nathalie buchez 2, rue de motte f-80290 fresnay-au-vall france nathalie.buchez@wanadoo.fr marcelo campagno av. rivadavia 5547 3f c1424cek buenos aires argentina mcampagno@ciudad.com.ar marek chodnicki muzeum archeologiczne ul. wodna 27 61-781 poznan • poland mchlod@man.poznan.pl krzysztof m. ciaowicz instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland kmcialowicz@interia.pl andrzej cwiek muzeum archeologiczne ul. wodna 27 61-781 poznan • poland joanna debowska instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland joanna_d@poczta.onet.pl j.p.dessel department of history, university of tennessee 6th floor dunford hall 915 volunteer boulevard knoxville, tn 37996 usa jdessel@utk.edu salem el-baghdadi the supreme council of antiquities, mansura inspectorate mansura egypt nagib mohammed el-said nur the supreme council of antiquities, mansura inspectorate mansura egypt dina faltings beethovenstrasse 56 69121 heidelberg brd dfaltings@aol.com renee friedman dept. of ancient egypt and sudan, british museum london wc1b 3dg england renee.f@virgin.net bolesaw ginter instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland ginter@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl ram gophna institute of archaeology, tel aviv university tel aviv 6978 israel gophna@post.tau.ac.il gwenola graff 29, rue briconnet f-37000 tours france gwenola.graff@wanadoo.fr ulrich hartung c/o german institute of archaeology 31, sh. abu el-feda, zamalek 11211 cairo egypt uhartung@soficom.com.eg stan hendrickx sint-jansstraat 44 b-3118 werchter belgium s.hendrickx@pandora.be tomasz herbich instytut archeologii i etnologii pan al. solidarnosci 105 00-140 warszawa poland herbich@archeolog.iaepan.edu.pl alejandro jimenez serrano calle santo reino no. 7, 7° d e-23001 jaen spain alejandrojjs@yahoo.es maciej jordeczka instytut archeologii i etnologii pan ul. zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 poznan • poland mariusz jucha instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31.007 krakow poland jucha@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl jacek kabacinski instytut archeologii i etnologii pan ul. zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 poznan • poland kabay@man.poznan.pl micha • kobusiewicz instytut archeologii i etnologii pan ul. zwierzyniecka 20 60-814 poznan • poland mkobus@man.poznan.pl janusz k. kozowski instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland kozlowsk@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl christiana kohler australian center for egyptology, macquarie university sydney, n.s.w. 2109 australia ckoehler@pip.elm.mq.edu.au karla kroeper agyptisches museum schlossstrasse 70 d-14059 berlin brd kkroeper@hotmail.com alexei krol 123308 khoroshevskoe shosse 9-2-66 moscow russia alexikrol@yahoo.com lech krzyzaniak muzeum archeologiczne ul. wodna 27 61-781 poznan • poland lechk@man.poznan.pl lucyna kubiak-martens biax consult roetersstraat 8hs n-1018nwc amsterdam netherlands kubiak@biax.nl agnieszka maczynska muzeum archeologiczne ul. wodna 27 61-781 poznan • poland agamacz@man.poznan.pl beatrix midant-reynes centre d'anthropologie des societes rurales, universite paul sabatier 56 rue du taur f-31000 toulouse france midant@cict.fr karol mysliwiec zakad archeologii srodziemnomorskiej pan ul. nowy swiat 72 warszawa poland edyta m. nowak instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland edyta_nowak@interia.pl diana craig patch dept. of egyptian art, the metropolitan museum of art 1000 fifth ave. new york ny 10028 u.s.a. patrom@aol.com maciej pawlikowski instytut mineralogii, petrografii i geochemii, akademia gorniczo-hutnicza al. mickiewicza 30 30-059 krakow poland mpawlik@uci.agh.edu.pl kathryn piquette institute of archaeology, university college london 31-34 gordon square london wc1h 0py england tcrnkep@ucl.ac.uk ilona regulski egyptian department royal museums for art and history jubelpark 10 b-1040 brussels belgium ilona_regulski@yahoo.com heiko riemer forschungstelle afrika, institut fur ur- und fruhgeschichte, universitat zu koln jennerstrasse 8 d-50823 koln brd heiko.riemer@uni-koeln.de joanne rowland institute of archaeology, university college london 31-34 gordon square london wc1h 0py england joannerowland@hotmail.com peter schonfeld forschungstelle afrika, institut fur ur- und fruhgeschichte, universitat zu koln jennerstrasse 8 d-50823 koln brd jane smythe australian center for egyptology, macquarie university sydney, n.s.w. 2109 australia smythejane@hotmail.com karin sowada the nicholson museum, university of sydney sydney, n.s.w 2006 australia joachim sliwa instytut archeologii, uniwersytet jagiellonski ul. goebia 11 31-007 krakow poland jsliwa@argo.hist.uj.edu.pl izumi takamiya the school of literature, arts & cultural studies, kinki university 228-3 shinkamikosaka, higashiosaka-shi osaka-fu, 577-0813 japan izumi@fiveminutes.co.jp edwin van den brink israel antiquities authority p.o.b. 586 jerusalem, 91004 israel edwin@israntique.org.il joris van wetering groningsestraat 19 n-2587 rj den haag netherlands jflvwetering@yahoo.co.uk pierre vermeersch laboratorium voor prehistorie redingenstraat 16bis b-3000 leuven belgium pierre.vermeersch@geo.kuleuven.ac.be martin ziermann rathelbeckstrasse 374 d-40627 dusseldorf brd bauforschung@nexgo.de martinziermann@cs.com

ksowada@zeta.org.au les restes d'animaux a caractere symbolique (?) d'apres les etudes a tell el-farkha (egypte) renata abamowicz muzeum slaskie katowice, katowice (poland) l'etude concerne les restes d'animaux qui temoignent des coutumes et rites religieux pratiques par les habitants de l'emplacement dans la periode entre environ 3500 - 2700 avant notre ere. on considere comme fouilles a ce caractere les restes d'animaux retrouves dans des tombes humaines (tell f) ainsi que les decouvertes isolees provenant des hameaux (tell w, tell c). aux environs des tombes, on a trouve des restes d'animaux dans la terre couvrant les fosses, aupres des squelettes humaines, a cote et a l'interieur des ustensiles (qui faisaient partie de l'equipement du defunt). le cochon etait l'espece la plus frequente (constituant 97% d'os retrouves); a part cela on a identifie des fragments separes de bovins, ainsi que des restes de mouton, de chevre, de chien et de lievre. on a distingue aussi des debris de poissons, d'oiseaux, de reptiles et des coquilles des mollusques d'eau douce. evidemment, le caractere des restes d'animaux decouverts n'est pas toujours evident ni tout a fait comprehensible. certains os peuvent etre lies aux dons (il s'agit de la nourriture symbolique offerte au defunt), d'autres viennent probablement des repas funeraires celebres aupres de la tombe. dans certaines circonstances, les restes d'animaux refletaient peut-etre le statut materiel et social du mort. le role "symbolique" des animaux est confirme par les decouvertes dans les tells central (c) et oriental (w). ainsi, le premier cas revele l'existence d'une fosse pour les chiens pres de laquelle on avait depose aussi les os d'une antilope. les os d'un aurochs (ou d'une grande bete a cornes), ordonnes de maniere atypique, proviennent du tell w; on les a identifies dans l'enceinte des murs de l'edifice. experimental studies on the firing methods of the black-topped pottery in predynastic egypt masahiro baba & masanori saito institute of egyptology, waseda university, tokyo (japan) one of the most accomplished and sophisticated wares in ancient egypt is the black-topped pottery that was mainly manufactured during the amratian (naqada i) and gerzean (naqada ii) periods (4000-3000 bc). this pottery has the distinctive feature of having a polished red body with black on the rim and on the inside. the greatest concern on the black-topped pottery is the chemistry used to produce the black coloring and the firing method, which have engendered much discussion and debate over the years. based on the scientific investigations, we came to the conclusion that the black color is due to a carbon adsorption caused by the organic materials and the firing under reducing circumstances. the firing method of the black-topped pottery is, however, still in controversy. hypotheses are generally divided into two interpretations. one is the firing in which the red of the body and the black of the rim are produced simultaneously. the other is the two-step process in which the red-hot vessel is removed from the hearth and placed immediately rim down into organic materials. although primitive firing methods might have been used by ancient potters, most of the previous experimental firings have been carried out in electric kilns. the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to reproduce black-topped pottery in the primitive way, and to limit the assumptions of its firing method. five firings were carried out; 1) bonfire, 2) bonfire in pit, 3) mud-covered bonfire, 4) updraught kiln, 5) two-step production. 1) ~ 4) were operated as one-step processes in which the vessels were placed upside down into the bed of the chaff before firing. the sample pots were made of clay with small amounts of fine sand and organic temper. the surfaces of the samples were coated with the red slip (ferric oxide), and polished with a pebble when half dry. 1) bonfire: at first, a shallow hole about 10cm in depth was prepared in the ground, and filled with chaff. samples were placed on the chaff, around which firewood for fuel was set at some distances. after firing, firewood was gradually moved nearer to the samples in order to avoid a fast rise in temperature. the maximum temperature was reached between 700~800°c. although the carbon adsorption occurred, black stains were observed to remain on the whole outside of the samples. thus, the bonfire did not easily produce the complete black-topped pottery. 2) bonfire in pit: a pit (1.5m square and 35cm in depth) was dug in the ground, in the bottom of which firewood and chaff were laid down. samples placed on the chaff were covered with straw and firewood. once the firewood was set on fire, the temperature rose rapidly, after 5 minutes it reached 800°c and was kept at that temperature for 10 minutes. the result was the same as with the bonfire method. 3) mud-covered bonfire: this method of firing is still widely practiced in eastern asia, the so-called unnan style. the samples were placed on a bed of chaff, around which firewood and straw were leaned, and were entirely covered with a layer of mud. after 85 minutes from ignition, the temperature inside reached 950°c, then after 170 minutes it reduced to 200°c. as the mud-cover was broken after it had cooled down, the firewood turned out to be charred and the chaff had not been burnt off. the samples were adequately fired, around the mouth of which the carbon adsorption was also achieved. moreover, the silvery luster between the red and black zone was observed as the same as the ancient black-topped pottery. 4) updraught kiln: the kiln used in this experiment was a simple one, the interior of which was partitioned by a grid radiating from a central pillar to make a hearth and a firing chamber. the chaff was laid on the fireproof plates set on the grid, and the samples were placed in the chaff. the temperature in the kiln was increased gradually to prevent damage to the samples. 215 minutes after ignition, 800°c was reached, after that, 650~800°c was kept for 60 minutes. the highest temperature, 870°c, was recorded at 220 minutes after the kiln was set on fire. the result was that the samples were baked very well, and the firing itself was proved to be successful. the carbon adsorption was, however, not observed in most samples, because the chaff had been reduced to ashes. 5) two-step production: at first, the samples were baked in a bonfire. the temperature rose rapidly after ignition, and reached 740°c the highest temperature in about 45 minutes. when the original carbon in the samples was burnt out, the red-hot samples were removed from the hearth and put into the hole filled with chaff. the carbon adsorption was attained and on the rim of the samples. the summary of the results are as follows; owing to the difficulty of controlling the fire, the bonfire, and the bonfire in the pit, were proved not to be suitable for the production of the black-topped pottery. the updraught kiln was also unsuitable, because of the organic material for the carbon adsorption being entirely burnt out by the upward flames. on the other hand, we succeeded in reproducing the black-topped pottery by using the two-step production method. however, it is highly probable that this method can be applied to smaller pottery, but not to larger ones. the reason for this assumption is that it is thought to be difficult to remove the large pottery from the hearth. of our experimental firings, the mud-covered bonfire was the most successful method. its operation was so easy that once the fire was set, there was no need to do some treatment during the firing. additionally, it needed less fuel than in the bonfires and the updraught kiln. evidence of the mud-covered bonfire has not yet been found on predynasatic sites in egypt, but it may be due to the property of the mud-cover being broken when opening. on the contrary, the absence of obvious kilns from this era might suggest the existence of the mud-covered bonfire. moreover, from the negative result of the updraught kiln, it might be assumed that the primitive firing methods of the black-topped pottery were gradually vanished as the new technique of the updraught kiln was introduced into egypt. first dynasty jewellery and amulets finds from the naqada tomb, comparisons and interpretation tine bagh carsten niebuhr institute, copenhagen (denmark) the finds from the niched mastaba in naqada from the time of king aha (here: the naqada tomb), are currently under investigation for a final publication by jochem kahl, eva engel, susanne petschel and tine bagh (cf. j. kahl et al. 2001). de morgan excavated the tomb in 1897 and it was subsequently investigated by l. borchardt in 1891 and j. garstang in 1904. the position of this type of grand tomb and the identity of the tomb owner have always puzzled us and this new study is bringing light to an important collection of material from the crucial period of the beginning of the 1st dynasty.

fig. 1: the naqada tomb the naqada tomb contained objects for personal adornment such as bead necklaces including small labels with the number of beads for each necklace and different kinds of tiny bracelets of bone. parallels for these bracelets occur in other tombs of the period and their small size would pose the question whether they were actually worn on the arm or possibly bearing some symbolic meaning as tomb equipment.

fig. 2: bone labels with number of beads from the naqada tomb. 15 fish amulets of bone, each 5-7cm long, were also among the grave goods. these can be divided into two main types being tilapiae with its characteristic high and flat body and mullets with a long slim and more rounded body and both types are pierced through the mouth and to a little below it. part of a fish, probably a mullet, was found in the tomb of aha at abydos and the offerings from the temple at hierakonpolis included a small tilapia, but otherwise the naqada fish are unique. in later times, i.e. in the middle kingdom, fish pendants are known as hair/plait pendants and as such they may have had a protective function. the connection between the tilapiae and the concept rebirth is well known and at least from the old kingdom, mullets are also associated with the cycle of life. some finds from the tomb are thus unique others have parallels from contemporary tombs in abydos and saqqara.

fig. 3: example of a. tilapiae, b. mullet from the naqada tomb. the size of the tomb together with the tomb equipment as for example one gold bead and vessels of precious imported material such as obsidian definitely points towards a royal burial and the main theory according to the inscribed material from the tomb is that it belonged to queen neith-hotep. the burnt bones from the burial chamber was analysed and seemed to be from a male person, so the question can not yet be determined with certainty. bibliography kahl, j.; bagh, t.; engel, e.-m. & petschel, s., die funde aus dem 'menesgrab' in naqada: ein zwischenbericht. mdaik, 57 (2001): 171-186. kahl, j. & engel, e.-m., vergraben, verbrannt, verkannt und vergessen. funde aus dem "menesgrab". munster, 2001. the unified egyptian state. the outlook from the east galina a. belova center for egyptological studies of the russian academy of sciences, moskou (russia) the excavations of the temple complex at tell ibrahim awad help fill some of the gaps in the history of the rise of the egyptian kingdom and not only confirm seidlmayer's opinions on this subject but also allow us to develop some of his statements. a complex pattern of interactions was taking place on the southern and northern boarders of egypt before and throughout the reign of the 1st dynasty kings. in the beginning of this period the frontier zone along the coast of sinai up into southern canaan was populated by a mix of egyptian and native inhabitants and peppered with settlements and trade points. this pattern ends with the close of the 1st dynasty. similar changes took place in the south. these developments on the northern and southern borders of the pre/protodynastic egyptian state were connected with major changes within egypt itself, which were particularly manifest in important centers such as abydos, hierakonpolis, elephantine, where we see fortified towns replacing scattered settlements. no doubt this is related to the establishment of clear borders and the need to enforce them. the erection of fortresses and the control of foreign trade is intimately connected with the unification of the egyptian state and coincides with an aggressive program of temple-building. the latter structures were under the protection of local deities and celebrated the cult of the king who was both the singular expression of the state's unity and the embodiment of its will to power. additionally, offerings to the cult of the king may have provided a focal point for the national economy as far back as the early dynastic period. hence, the objectives of the first egyptians kings included establishing and securing the borders of the state, laying claim to frontier territories and managing the economic, political and religious integration of the whole country. it seems very likely that the temples in the border areas were erected as part of one single project both as a result of and a statement regarding the unification of egypt to sum up, tell ibrahim awad is of great significance both in terms of religion and policy. perhaps the conjectures and ideas given above will be confirmed in the course of the further excavations and clarify the uncertain picture which we have of the appearance of the unified kingdom in egypt. the funerary objects from the early dynastic royal tombs at abydos in the royal museums of art and history in brussels stijn bielen royal museums of art and history, brussels (belgium) introduction in the egyptian collection of the royal museums of art and history (rmah) in brussels is preserved an enormous amount of objects from the royal tombs of the first and second dynasties at umm el-qaab (abydos, upper egypt). these artefacts consist in the first place of an outrageous mass of fragmentary stone vessels, estimated at more than 50.000 individual fragments. furthermore there are about 400 fragments of decorative stone vessels and 510 objects belonging to other categories (pottery vessels, bone and ivory objects, flint artefacts, seals, seal impressions ╔). an important number of these bear hieroglyphic inscriptions. indubitably, we are dealing here with the largest collection of archaeological material from these tombs outside egypt. these objects have reached the museum in brussels in several ways. a number of remarkable pieces was bought in 1904 in paris when the collection of emile amelineau (who excavated the royal tombs in 1895-1898) was sold by auction. another series of objects originates from the excavations which w.m.f. petrie carried out in 1899-1901 on behalf of the egypt exploration fund. the rmah subscribed to this undertaking as petrie was used to present important collections of objects to the institutions who supported him financially. the museum apparently received a much greater share than it would have been entitled to considering the money invested in the egypt exploration society. this is probably due to the excellent relationship between petrie and jean capart, in those days keeper of the egyptian section of the rmah. although excavated a hundred years ago, the material in brussels has never been adequately studied. because of the renewed interest in this type of material displayed by several museums with collections of the same provenance en because of the currently undertaken re-excavation of the site by the german archaeological institute, conditi